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Access control system

Access control system

The abbreviation ACS (sometimes called ACMS - access control and management system) is actually just an INTELLIGENT LOCK on your door. Of course, the concept of "lock" can include a lot of devices blocking the passage into the premises (building, territory, etc.). All these devices in access control systems are designated by the term executive devices.

The executive device can be the actual lock (electromechanical or electromagnetic), electromechanical latch, turnstile, barrier, etc.

In fact, any ACS is designed to automatically let through those who are allowed to pass, and not let through those who are prohibited. ACS allows at any time to ensure control over the situation, order, safety of personnel and visitors, preservation of material values ​​and information. All the differences between the existing systems lie in how reliably, qualitatively, and conveniently for the user the functions of the access control system are performed.

Briefly about some terms used in descriptions of access control systems.

• Determination of ACS

Access control system (ACS, sometimes - access control and management system - ACMS) - a set of software and technical tools and organizational and methodical measures, with the help of which the task of controlling and managing visits to individual premises is solved, as well as operational control of the movement of personnel and the time of their stay on the territory of the object. Indeed, ACS is not only hardware and software, but a well-thought-out personnel management system.

• User ID

This is some device or feature by which the user is identified. Identifiers can be magnetic cards, contactless proximity cards, Touch Memory fobs, various radio fobs, images of the iris of the eye, fingerprints, palm prints, and many other physical signs. Each identifier is characterized by a certain unique binary code. In the access control system, each code is matched with information about the rights and privileges of the owner of the identifier.

The following card types are currently in use:

• Contactless radio frequency (PROXIMITY) cards are the most promising and currently used type of cards. Contactless cards work at a distance and do not require clear positioning, which ensures their stable operation and ease of use, high throughput of the system. The reader generates electromagnetic radiation of a certain frequency and, when the card is inserted into the reader's range, this radiation feeds the card's chip through the card's built-in antenna. Having received the necessary energy for operation, the card sends its identification number to the reader with the help of an electromagnetic pulse of a certain form and frequency.

• Magnetic cards - a less common option, has several disadvantages - short service life, the need for clear positioning. There are cards with a low-coercive and high-coercive magnetic strip and with recording on different tracks. Typically used for identifiers with a very limited lifetime.

• Wiegand cards - named after the scientist who discovered a magnetic alloy with a rectangular hysteresis loop. Inside the card are sections of wire made of this alloy, which, when the reading head is moved past them, allow you to receive information. These cards are more durable than magnetic cards, but also more expensive. One of the disadvantages is that the code is entered into the card during manufacture once and for all.

• Barcode cards - a bar code is applied to the card. There is a more complicated option - the barcode is covered with a material that is transparent only in infrared light, reading takes place in the IR region of the spectrum.

• "Touch memory" key fob - a metal tablet inside which is a ROM chip. When the tablet is touched to the reader, a unique identifier code is sent from the tablet's memory to the controller.

The same card can open both one door and serve as a "key" for several doors. Temporary or one-time guest passes - cards with a limited validity period - are issued for temporary employees and visitors.

• Reader

A device designed for reading information from the identifier and transferring this information to the ACS controller.

• Passage point

Some obstacle (barrier), equipped with a reader and an executive device. An entry point can be fully controlled or only ingress controlled. In the first case, the passage is equipped with two readers - at the entrance and at the exit. In the second case, only the reader enters, the exit is carried out freely or by pressing the RTE button.

• RTE button

The button "EXIT" (Request To Exit) serves to force permission to cross the passage point, that is, to open the executive device. At the same time, the fact of opening is recorded in the controller's memory, but it is not known who exactly passed. Such buttons are placed to ensure unobstructed exit from the premises.

• ACS controller

The controller is the heart of the ACS. A device designed to process information from ID readers, make decisions and control executive devices. According to the management method of the company ACS controllers are divided into three classes: autonomous, centralized (network) and combined.

• Autonomous controllers

A fully finished device designed to serve, as a rule, a single access point. There are a wide variety of variations: controllers combined with a reader, controllers built into an electromagnetic lock, and so on. Autonomous controllers are designed for the use of various types of readers. As a rule, autonomous controllers are designed to serve a small number of users, usually up to five hundred.

• Network controllers

A term denoting the possibility of operation of controllers in a network under the control of a computer. In this case, decision-making functions fall on a personal computer with installed specialized software. Network controllers are used to create ACS of any degree of complexity. At the same time, the administration receives a huge number of additional opportunities. In addition to simply allowing or denying access, you generally have the following options:

    - receiving a report on the presence or absence of employees at work

    - you have the opportunity to find out where the employee is located almost instantly

    - you have the opportunity to keep an automatic time sheet

    - you have the opportunity to receive a report on who and where went for almost any period of time

    - you can create a time schedule for the passage of employees, that is, who can go, where and at what time

    - you get the opportunity to maintain an employee database (electronic card file), in which you enter all the necessary information about employees, including their photos.

... And much, much more. That is, there is always an opportunity to fulfill the most exotic wishes of the owner of the ACMS.

• Combined controllers

The functions of network and autonomous controllers are combined. If there is a connection with the control computer (on line), the controllers work as a network device, if there is no connection - as autonomous. The best solution for modern integrated security systems, allows you to build a fault-tolerant system on a flexible ACS.

• Prohibition of double passage

Prohibition of double passage (anti passback) is a prohibition on allowing a user who has not left the premises to pass through the same point of passage. Naturally, this possibility exists only for a fully controlled passage point, since it is possible to determine that a person entered, but did not leave, only on a passage equipped with two readers for entry and exit.

The function of banning double passage was introduced in order to make it difficult to transfer the identifier to another person and is necessary for the correct accounting of working hours and the organization of an increased level of control over the movement of personnel and visitors.

• Discipline of passage

Support of such a regime of passages, in which a person who has passed into a room equipped with a fully controlled point of passage cannot pass into any other room without first exiting the controlled one.

• Passable

A passage point endowed with special functions. A person who has not passed through the passage point, marked as passable, will not be able to enter any room of the object. As a rule, it is from the time of passage through the passage that the working time is calculated.

• Photo identification

The possibility of displaying a photo of the ID holder (from the database) on the computer monitor screen. Photo identification is used at entrances as an additional measure of protection against unauthorized entry. At the same time, the decision to pass can be made both automatically and with confirmation from the security guard at the pass.

The principle of operation of the access control and management system

The principle of operation of the access control and management system is as follows:

Each employee, client, visitor receives an identifier (electronic key) - a plastic card or a keyring containing an individual code. "Electronic keys" are issued as a result of registration of the listed persons using the system. Passport data, photo (video) and other information about the owner of the "electronic key" are entered into a personal "electronic card". The owner's personal "electronic card" and the code of his "electronic key" are connected to each other and entered into specially organized computer databases.

Readers are installed near the entrance to the building or in the hall of the premises, which read the card code and information about the access rights of the card holder and transmit this information to the system controller.

In the system, each code is matched with information about the cardholder's rights. Based on the comparison of this information and the situation in which the card was presented, the system makes a decision: the controller opens or blocks the doors (locks, turnstiles), puts the premises into security mode, activates the alarm, etc.

All facts of card presentation and related actions (passes, alarms, etc.) are recorded in the controller and stored in the computer. Information about events caused by the presentation of cards can be used in the future to receive reports on accounting overtime, violations of labor discipline, etc.

At enterprises, four characteristic points of access control can be distinguished: passageways, office premises, premises of special importance, and entrances / exits of motor vehicles.

Depending on the task before you, you can choose the appropriate access control and management system.

A small ACS will prevent the access of unwanted persons, and employees will be able to specify precisely those rooms to which they have the right to access.

A more complex system will allow, in addition to restricting access, to assign an individual hourly work schedule to each employee, save and then view information about events for the day. Systems can work in autonomous mode and under computer control.

Complex ACSs allow you to solve security and discipline issues, automate personnel and accounting records, and create an automated security guard workplace. The set of functions performed by complex systems makes it possible to use the control system to perform specific tasks at your enterprise or facility.

The ELVIS group of companies offers a full range of services for the implementation of access control system projects. The engineers of our company will select for you a system optimally suitable for your enterprise, and the price range and performance indicators of the equipment offered by us will satisfy the most demanding customer.

We are sure that any customer, regardless of the volume of work performed, will appreciate the competence of our company, the professionalism of our employees and the individual approach.

The access control system is not a complete security system. If you aim at the task of comprehensive protection, then in addition to the access control system, a video surveillance system can be installed.